• DIAN FEBRIANTI Fakultas Ilmu Budaya Universitas Brawijaya


Keywords: Social level, Javanese people, forms of address, Mangan Ora   Mangan Kumpul Forms of address have a tight relationship with culture. By understandingthe forms of address, people can understand about a culture of the society who use it. The society that is designated by this research is Javanese. Furthermore,Mangan Ora Mangan Kumpul is chosen as the data source because of somereasons, for example this book contains a lot of Javanese values. There are twoproblems proposed in this research, those are: (1) what are the forms of address used in Mangan Ora Mangan Kumpul? (2) how do the forms of address in Mangan Ora Mangan Kumpul reflect social level among Javanese people?This research applies qualitative research approach, explanative as theresearch purpose, primary data source, social interaction as the unit analysis,document as the technique of collecting data, content analysis as the data analysis, and the last is triangulation as the research validation.The result of this research found that forms of addess are divided into three functions; to designate people who are from a higher, a same or a lower social level than the addresser. Forms of address to designate people from highersocial level are anda, panjenengan, sampeyan, Pakde, Engkoh, Bapak, Bune, Mas, and mBakyu. Forms of address to designate people from same social level are kamu, kau, kalian, (characters’ name), (characters’ nickname), Profesor andDokter. The last, forms of address to designate people from lower social level are kamu, kau, kalian, Tole, Adik, (characters’ name), and (characters’ nickname).The social level of Javanese people in this novel mostly identified by socio-economic capability and age of persons. There are some incorrect uses ofthe address forms applied by the characters in the novel. It happened because of some reasons, such as social distance and joke. Those incorrect uses are: (a) Anda is used to designate a person who is from the same social level (socio-economic aspect), (b) Sampeyan is not used to only designate people from higher social level, but also people from lower social level (socio economic aspect). This form actually also can be used to decrease a respect feeling to the addressee, (c) Bune is not used to only designate people from higher social level, but also people from same social level (age gap and socio-economic aspects), (d) Mas is not used to only designate people from higher social level, but also people from lower social level (socio-economic aspect).


Ary, Donalds et al. (2002). Introduction to Research in Education: Sixth Edition. USA: Wardsworth/Thomson Learning.

Babbie, Earl. (2005). The Basic of Social Research. Canada: Thomson Wadsworth.

Barker, Chris. (2006). Cultural Studies: Theory and Practice (Second Edition). London: Sage Publications.

Chaer, Abdul et al. (2010). Sosiolinguistik: Perkenalan Awal. Jakarta: PT.Rineka Cipta.

Cresswell, John W. (1994). Research Design: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. London: Sage Publication, Inc.

Cresswell, John. W. (1998). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing among Five Traditions. USA: Sage Publications, Inc.

Departemen Pendidikan Nasional. (1996). Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia: Edisi Dua. Jakarta: Balai Pustaka.

Echols, John M., Hasan Shadily. (2003). An Indonesian-English Dictionary. Jakarta: PT. Gramedia.

Errington, J. Joseph. (1985). Language and Social Change in Java: Linguistic Reflexes of Modernization in a Traditional Royal Polity. Ohio, USA: Center of International Studies, Ohio University.

Errington, J. Joseph. (1998). Shifting Languages: Interaction and Identity in Javanese Indonesia. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Gao, Chunming. (2013). A Constrastive Study of Chinese and English Address Forms. Journal Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 190-194. Published by School of Foreign Languages, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun, China.

Hatley, et al. (1984). Other Javas Away from the Kraton. Australia: Monash University Press.

Hefner, Robert. (2001). Linguistic Anthropology. Vol 103. No 1. Boston University.

Kadarisman, A. Effendi. (2010) Mengurai Bahasa Menyimak Budaya: Bunga Rampai Linguistik, Puitika, dan Pengajaran Bahasa. Malang: UIN-Maliki Press.

Kayam, Umar. (2012) Mangan Ora Mangan Kumpul. Jakarta: Pustaka Utama Grafiti

Meyerhoff, Myriam et al. (2006). Introducing Sociolinguistics. UK: Routledge.

Moedjanto,G. (1993). The Concept of Power in Javanese Culture. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press.

Mogi, Norie. (2002). Japanese Ways of Addressing People. Journal Investigationes Linguisticae, Vol. VIII. Ponzan, Poland.

Moleong, Lexy.J. (2004). Metodologi Penulisan Kualitatif. Bandung : Remaja Rosdakarya.

Kothari, C.R. (2004). Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques. India: New Age International Publisher.

Kumar, Ranjit. (1996). Research Methodology: a Step by Step Guide for Begginers. Melbourne: Longman.

Longman. (2008). Advanced American Dictionary. England: Pearson Education Limited.

Mulder, Niels. (1992). Inside South East Asia: Thai, Javanese, and Filipino, interpretations of everyday life. Michigan: Editions Duang Kamol.

Poerwadarminto, W.J.S. (2007). Kamus Umum Bahasa Indonesia: Edisi Ketiga. Jakarta: Balai Pustaka. Pronouns. Retrieved on June 17th 2013 from

Salamun, Drs. et al. (2002). Budaya Masyarakat Suku Bangsa Jawa di Kabupaten Wonosobo Propinsi Jawa Tengah. Yokyakarta: Badan Pengembangan Kebudayaan dan Pariwisata.

Suryadi and Kusnendi. (2010). Kearifan Lokal dan Perilaku Edukatif, Ilmiah, Religius. Indonesia: Journal published in Proceedings of The 4th International Conference on Teacher Education; Join Conference UPI & UPSI.

Spencer, F. Robert. (1964). A Dictionary of the Social Classes. New York: The Free Press.

Stratifikasi Social. Retrieved on July 22nd 2013 from

Social Stratification. Retrieved on July 22nd 2013 from

South East Asia Writers Awards. Retrieved on January 3rd 2014 from

Wardhaugh. (2006). An Introduction to Sociolingustics: Fifth Edition. UK: Blackwell Publishing.

Yu Chen. (2010). Cultural Differences in Chinese and American Address Forms Journal Vol.2 No 2. Published by Foreign Languages School.

Yule, George. (1996). The Study of Language: Second Edition. UK: Cambridge University Press.

Zeitlin, F. Marian et al. (1995). Strengthening the Family: Implications for International Development. Hongkong: The United Nations University.

Zhang Xiaochi. (2011). A Comparative Study of The Sino-American Address Forms from an Intercultural Communicative Perspective. Journal Vol.1 No.1. Published by School of Foreign Languages, China West Normal University.

Zhong Xiaopei. Cultural Implications behing Power and Solidarity – A Case Study of Chinese and British English Address Forms.