THE SPIRIT OF FEMINISM AGAINST WOMEN NEGATIVE STEREOTYPES IN VERONICA ROTHâ€™S DIVERGENT
AbstractKeywords: Divergent, Feminism, Gender, Women Negative Stereotypes.Gender is social and cultural construction about the differences of the roles and opportunities between men and women which occur in society. Gender often causes inequality between man and woman which usually disadvantages woman because of the negative stereotypes that exist in the society. The writer conducted a study on Divergent novel to analyze the portrayal of female characters countering negative stereotypes that exist in their society.Sociological approach is used in this research related with the context in the society. Feminism theory is applied in this study to analyze the data which mainly about the struggle of female characters in the society.This study reveals that the female characters in the Divergent novel do not fit the negative stereotypes that are labelled on them. The portrayal of women characters are considered as the picture of strong, brave, and intelligent women who has important contribution to the society. The women characters proves that they have courage and bravery, for example they can make decision over themselves and willing to sacrifice their life for others whom they love. Second, the women characters are depicted as brilliant which makes men feels threatened and intimidated. Third, the women characters depicted has physically, mentally,and emotionally strong that makes men feels threatened and the last, the women characters depicted as having important role to contribute to the social development by helping others.In conclusion, the women characters in this novel prove that women do not fit the stereotypes that are attributed by the society. In this novel, the women characters are considered as the portrayal of strong, brave, and intelligent women who also has important contribution to the society.The writer suggests the next researchers to use different approach or theories such as Psychology or Marxism to analyze the novel. The first theory can be used to understand the characters and their psychological development. Meanwhile the second theory can be used to observe the social class struggles within the society in the novel.
American Women in World War II. (2011). Retrieved March 11, 2015, from www.nationaww2museum.org: http://www.nationalww2museum.org/learn/education/for-students/ww2history/at-a-glance/women-in-ww2.html
Bergman, J. (1996). The History of Evolution's Teaching of Women's Inferiority. Journal of Social Issues, 1-28.
Borgatta, E. F., & Montgomery, R. J. (n.d). Encyclopedia of Sociology. New York: Macmillan.
Cashmore, E. (2008). Sport and Exercise Psychology. New York: Routledge.
Cherry, K. (2015). Theories of Intelligence. Retrieved January 14, 2015, from About.com:
Cliffnotes. (2014). Retrieved October 29, 2014, from Cliffnotes: http://www.cliffsnotes.com/sciences/sociology/sex-and-gender/genderstereotypes
Crossman, A. (2015). Deductive Reasoning Versus Inductive Reasoning. Retrieved February 4, 2015, from about.com:
Dystopia. (2014). Retrieved November 6, 2014, from
Goodreads. (2014). Retrieved November 10, 2014, from Goodreads: http://www.goodreads.com/author/show/4039811.Veronica_Roth
Hartley, D. H. (2011). Sun Tzu and Command Assesment : A Study on Commander's Courage. International Journal of Leadership Studies, 264273.
Hegelson, V. S. (2011). The Psychology of Gender. New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.
Hooks, B. (2014). Understanding Patriarchy. Retrieved November 6, 2014, from Louisville Anarchist Federation: http://LAFF-experiment.org
J.Sternberg, R. (2005). The Theory of Successful Intelligence. Interamerican Journal of Psychology, 189-202.
Kilgo, J. C. (1995-2014). The Roles for Women. Retrieved March 8, 2015, from Frontline:
Lerner, G. (1986). The Creation of Patriarchy. New York: Oxford University Press.
Marquis, A.-M. (1998). Gender Differences in Risk Taking Behavior : From family of Origin to Personality Variables. Texas: Texas Tech University.
Matsumoto, D. (2009). The Cambridge Dictionary of Psychology. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Nelson, T. (2009). Handbook of Prejudice, Stereotyping, and Discrimination. New York: Psychology Press.
New World Encyclopedia. (2014). Retrieved January 14, 2014, from New World Encyclopedia.org:
Oxford Dictionaries. (2015). Retrieved March 11, 2015, from Oxford Dictionaries Online: http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/brave
Pilcher, J., & Whelehan, I. (2004). 50 Key Concepts in Gender Studies. London: Sage Publications Ltd
Ray, S. (n.d.). Understanding Patriarchy. Retrieved October 29, 2014, from www.imaginenoborders.org:
http:/www.related:imaginenoborders.org/pdf/zines/UnderstandingPatriarchy.pdf understanding patriarchy
Readwritethink. (2014). Retrieved November 6, 2014, from Readwritethink.org: http://www.readwritethink.org/files/resources/lesson_images/lesson926/DefinitionCharacteristics.pdf
Ritzer, G., & Ryan, J. M. (Eds.). (2011). The Concise Encyclopedia of Sociology. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Roth, V. (2011). Divergent (1st ed.). New York: Harper Collins. Retrieved April 9, 2013, from http://www.pdforigin.com/divergent-pdf/
Scantlebury, K. (2006-2015). Gender Role Stereotyping. Retrieved February 4, 2015, from education.com:
Statt, D. A. (1998). The Concise Dictionary of Psychology. New York: Routledge.
Steinberg, R. J. (2011). The Cambridge Handbook of Intelligence. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Sultana, A. (July 2010-June 2011). Patriarchy and Women's Subordination : A theoritical Analysis. The Arts Faculty Journal, 1-18.
The Editors of Salem Press. (2011). Sociology Reference Guide: Gender Roles and Equality. California: Salem Press.
Thom, B. (2003). Risk Taking Behaviour in Men Substance Use and Gender.
London: Health Development Agency.Tull, M. (2015). Risk Taking. Retrieved January 14, 2015, from About.com:
Tyson, L. (2006). Critical Theory Today: A User- Friendly Guide. New York: Routledge.
Walby, S. (1990). Theorizing Patriarchy. Cambridge: Basil Blackwell.
Weak. (2015). Retrieved March 11, 2015, from Oxford Dictionaries Online: http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/weak
Wilde, K. (2015). Women in Sport: Gender Stereotypes in the Past and Present. Retrieved February 4, 2015, from atabaschau: http://wgst.athabascau.ca/awards/broberts/forms/Wilde.pdf.
Wilson, L. O. (2015). Sternberg's Views on Intelligence. Retrieved January 14, 2015, from thesecondprinciple.com:
Women At War. (2015). Retrieved March 3, 2015, from Veterans Affair Canada: http://www.veterans.gc.ca/eng/remembrance/history/historicalsheets/women
Worell, J. (2002). Encyclopedia of Women and Gender: Sex Similarities and Differences and the Impact of Society on Gender. New York: Academic Press.
LicenseAuthors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under aÂ Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (SeeÂ The Effect of Open Access).